Haiti - EnergyHaiti - Energy
Haiti has substantial renewable energy potential. Still, the country faces significant challenges to gaining access to clean and renewable energy. On average, 80 percent of electricity is produced from imported fossil fuels. The underutilized opportunities for small hydropower, smart grid, and biomass systems make Haiti an interesting renewable energy prospect. Much of the population relies on biomass such as charcoal and wood fuel as their main source of energy. Although solar and wind resources are available throughout the country, very little of this potential has been developed. The most significant contribution of renewables to Haiti’s energy source comes from hydropower.
Local demand for U.S. electrical machinery and equipment was valued at $20.4 million in FY 2018. Electricite d’Haiti (EDH), an underperforming, largely government-owned company, provides about 5 to 13 hours of electricity per day throughout the country, though during disruptions to the fuel supply chain, the availability of electricity on the EDH grids may fall significantly. Port-au-Prince itself obtains less than 20 hours of electricity per day. EDH only collects $50 million annually, which is not enough to finance the company’s daily operations. According to information from the Commercial Directorate of EDH, revenues collected in 2018 decreased by 23%. The government of Haiti provides an annual subsidy around $200 million to keep the company afloat.
There is an urgent need to repair and expand existing power plants throughout the country. Haiti has an installed capacity of 250 to 400 Megawatts (MW) but only 60 percent of the installed capacity is reliable, as many generation units need rehabilitation and repair work. Total unmet demand for residential and commercial electricity in the country is estimated at approximately 500 MW per day. Only about 40 percent of Haitians have access to electricity, with an average annual consumption of just 21 Kilowatts (KWH) per person.
Even for those with access to electricity, reliability is inconsistent. This unreliability requires many businesses and larger households to install diesel generators. Multinational businesses have expressed dissatisfaction at the expensive energy rates in Haiti’s commercial and industrial sectors, compared to other countries in the regions where they do business. This lack of access to affordable and reliable power hinders investment, constrains the development of productive businesses, and degrades living standards for residential customers.
The fuel of choice for food preparation for many rural households in Haiti remains charcoal, which is a major cause of deforestation. The annual consumption of wood products by Haitians is estimated at 4 million metric tons (MT), of which about one-third is transformed into charcoal to meet the cooking fuel needs of urban consumers. Apart from the negative environmental impact of cutting trees for fuel, cooking with firewood and charcoal exposes the populace, especially women and young children, to smoke and indoor air pollution.
There are various sources of energy in Haiti including:
•506 million KWH produced from two private companies using diesel fuel;
•284 million KWH generated from EDH power plants including 226 million KWH produced from the Péligre hydro-electric plant located in the Artibonite Department;
•334 million KWH produced from three heavy fuel oil power plants developed under a Cuba-Venezuela-Haiti tripartite agreement; and
•10,000 KWH power plant with transmission and distribution of uninterrupted (24/7) electricity that serves the Caracol industrial Park.
Please note that more recent data on electricity generation is not available. Although the government hopes to modernize EDH, in 2018 it made minimal efforts to improve its performance. In 2018, Haiti’s new energy regulatory authority ANARSE offered a prequalification round for companies interested in bidding on future tenders for regional power production and distribution, as well as power generation for the Port au Prince metropolitan area. ANARSE expects to issue the first tenders for several regional grids in the summer of 2019.
Electrical blackouts occur frequently in Haiti. Residential owners drive demand for low-cost electrical generation equipment and small-scale power charging stations because of severe limits on local generating capacity. There is also a consistent residential demand for solar energy equipment and smart grids, as well as demand from private businesses. According to Haitian dealers’ records, 50 percent of power generators come from the United States. Other suppliers include Japan, France, China, and South Korea.
In Haiti, about 40 percent of the population has consistent access to electricity, although the Ministry of Public Works estimates that the coverage could be higher when irregular connections are considered. In urban areas, the total electrification rate is 72 percent but only 15 percent in rural areas.
Some towns in Haiti, such as Fort-Liberté, the capital of Nord-Est, have an electricity distribution network, but have been effectively abandoned by the national utility EDH for about a decade. Users thus have to rely entirely on small, privately owned generators to meet their electricity demand.
EDH’s inability to provide reliable, centrally-supplied power continues to drive demand for power generation equipment, such as new electrical power systems, generators, inverters, solar panels, and batteries, as well as maintenance for the equipment. U.S. electrical companies, including those that supply generators, parts, and service, may find opportunities in Haiti. The World Bank has financed the Electricity Loss Reduction Project (PREPSEL) to increase production and strengthen the management of the electric network in Haiti. With Haiti’s tropical climate and high percentage of daily sunlight, the country could be a prime candidate for wind and solar power generation projects. There are also opportunities to generate energy from small hydropower and biomass projects.
USAID funded the construction of a 10 megawatt (MW) power plant with transmission and distribution facilities to serve the Caracol Industrial Park tenants as well as commercial and residential customers in the surrounding villages. The 10MW power plant provides uninterrupted 24/7 electricity to 13,000-metered customers.
The utility in the north has made in-roads in reducing electricity theft, and properly installing connections and improving collection of electricity bills for customers with working meters. For those customers with regularized electricity service (proper connections and meters), the collection rates for electricity bills is above 90 percent, compared to below 25 percent for those customers in other parts of the country with electricity provided by the national electric utility.
Electricite d’Haiti (EDH)
Angle Rue Chareron et Boulevard Harry Truman Cite de l’Exposition
Tel: (509) 2813-1641 / 2813-0157/ 2813-0197/ 2223-0837 / 2212-2212
Fax: (509) 2223-8750
(Mr. Hervé Pierre-Louis , Director General)
Hinsa Free Zone Park, Rue Lisius, Drouillard
Tel: (509) 2813-0015
Fax: (954) 323-4315
30, Boulevard Toussaint Louverture,
Route de l’Aeroport
Tel: (509) 3707-0000 / 3708-0000
HayTrac (Haitian Tractor & Equipment Co S.A.)
51, Blvd. Toussaint Louverture
Route de l’Aeroport
Tel: (509) 2814-8000
Haiti Energy Trade Development and Promotion